Artificial Intelligence ||1st term solutions 2019

7th semester

St Xavier’s College

What is cognitive science?
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It is the study of thought, learning, and mental organization, which draws on aspects of psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer modelling. Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information. 
 How does rule based agent work?
A rule based agent is an intelligent agent (IA) that refers to an autonomous entity which acts, directing its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is an agent), upon an environment using observation through sensors and consequent actuators (i.e. it is intelligent. Rule based agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. A reflex machine, such as a thermostat, is considered an example of a rule base agent.
What is tautology?
In logic, a tautology is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation. An example is “x=y or x≠y”. A less abstract example is “The ball is all green, or the ball is not all green”. This is true regardless of the color of the ball.
 Define omniscience.
Omniscience is the capacity to know everything. Omniscience is the capacity to have unlimited knowledge about all things. Example of omniscience is god who is known to know everything.
What is CNF form?
Conjunctive normal form (CNF) is an approach to Boolean logic that expresses formulas as conjunctions of clauses with an AND or OR. Each clause connected by a conjunction, or AND, must be either a literal or contain a disjunction, or OR operator. CNF is useful for automated theorem proving.
How do you define fuzzy logic?
Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on “degrees of truth” rather than the usual “true or false” (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.It is employed to handle the concept of partial truth, where the truth value may range between completely true and completely false. 
 Define sequential environment.
Sequential environment is a situation in which an agent is present where an agent requires memory of past actions to determine the next best actions. However, in an episodic environment, there is a series of one-shot actions, and only the current percept is required for the action.
 What is rational agent?
A rational agent could be anything which makes decisions, as a person, firm, machine, or software. It carries out an action with the best outcome after considering past and current percepts(agent’s perceptual inputs at a given instance).
 What are different types of intelligent agent?
Agents can be grouped into four classes based on their degree of perceived intelligence and capability :

  • Simple Reflex Agents
  • Model-Based Reflex Agents
  • Goal-Based Agents
  • Utility-Based Agents
  • Learning Agent

Define semantic network.
A semantic network is used when one has knowledge that is best understood as a set of concepts that are related to one another. Most semantic networks are cognitively based. They also consist of arcs and nodes which can be organized into a taxonomic hierarchy.


What does cognitive approach resemble in AI?
Cognitivemodeling is an area of computer science that deals with simulating human problem-solving and mental processing in a computerized model. Such a model can be used to simulate or predict human behavior or performance on tasks similar to the ones modeled and improve human-computer interaction.
What is rational agent?
In machine learning and artificial intelligence research, the “rational agent” is a concept that guides the use of game theory and decision theory in applying artificial intelligence to various real-world scenarios. 
What is the relation between agent and environment?
An agentis anything that can perceive its environment through sensors and acts upon that environment through effectors. 
Differentiate between artificial intelligence and omniscience.

Artificial Intelligence Omniscience
Traditionally used by electronic devices to create an intelligent agent that can perceive and respond to data The capacity to have unlimited knowledge about all things.
Example: Computer playing chess with artificial intelligence Example: God who is known to everything

What is the problem of hill climbing search?

  • Local Maxima
  • Plateau
  • Ridges

What is the use of sensor?
A sensoris a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
What do you mean by dynamic environment?
If the environment can change itself while an agent is deliberating then such environment is called a dynamic environment 
Define search in AI
Searching techniques are strategies that look for solutions to a problem in a search The solutions or ‘goal states’ could sometimes be an object, a goal, a sub-goal or a path to the searched item.
Define uninformed search and informed search

  • Uninformed search: An uninformed search is a searching technique that has no additional information about the distance from the current state to the goal. 
  • Informed Search:Another technique that has additional information about the estimate distance from the current state to the goal.

Define heuristic search
Heuristic search refers to a search strategy that attempts to optimize a problem by iteratively improving the solution based on a given heuristic function or a cost measure.