Features of informal English
- Silent pauses (dash -)
- Voice filled pauses
- Use of repetition
- False starts marker
Features of spoken English
- Tag question
- Coordination and subordination
- Finite clauses
Difference between <AmE> and <BrE>
- Our daughter is at the university. (AmE)
- Our daughter is at university. ( BrE)
2. Got/ gotten
- He has got/gotten the movie ticket. (AmE)
- He has got the movie ticket.
3. Simple past & present perfect
- She ate too much.(AmE)
- She’s eaten too much.(BrE)
- The press suggested that Hari be dropped from the team.(AmE)
- The press suggested that Hari should be dropped from the team.(BrE)
5. Different from /than/to
- This place is different than anything I’ve seen before.
6. From….through or From ….to
- The tour lasted from July trough August .(AmE)
- The tour lasted from July to August. (BrE)
46. Formal and informal
There are many friends to whom one would hesitate to entrust one’s own children . (Formal)
There’s lots of friends who you would hesitate to entrust your own children. (Informal)
49.Formal vs less formal
- Aid – help
- Commence – begin
- Conceal – hide
- Continue – keep on
- Conclude – end
Formal vs informal
- Delete – cross off
- Encounter – come across
- Enter – go into
- Investigate – look into
- Surrender – give in
- Renovate – do up
50. Impersonal style
2.Sentences beginning with introductory It
3.sentences beginning with Abstract noun
– wealth didn’t bring them happiness.
- Shut the door , will you (familiar )
- Would you please shut the door ? (Rather polite)
- I wonder if you would mind shutting the door .( more polite)
- Someone may have made a mistake. (Tentative)
- Someone might just have made a mistake. ( more tentative )
- Features of literature language
Alliteration ,Assonance ,Rhyme ,Rhythm ,Simile ,Metaphor
A set of tools , a herd of cattle , a crowd of people , a flock of sheep , a gang of thieves ,a constellation of star
2.Part & whole noun
- Part –whole , half , a quarter
- Unit noun –piece ,slice :- A piece of bread / paper / land
3. Mass noun
5.Concrete & abstract noun
Use of Definite Article
- Unique use of the
The earth revolves around the sun.
2.Back-pointing use of the
He has son and two daughters , but the son is already grown up.
3.Forward-pointing use of the
The wine of France is the best in the world.
4.Conventional use of the
what’s on T.V. tonight.
- A) Adjectives are used with generic the
- To denote a class of people ( the poor , the young)
- To denote an abstract quality
- With nationality adjective ending in sibilant – ch, ese , sh
- With nationality or ethnic noun
Generic use of pronouns
- one :-One never knows what may happen.
- You :-You never know what may happen.
- They :-They say it’s going to rain tomorrow
1.Pointer words can be situational
Would you like to sit on this chair.
2.Pointer words can be back pointing
This was what he had said.
3.Pointer words can be forward pointing
This is what he wrote.
The ‘have’ relation
- Noun2 of noun 1 ( the roof of house , the courage of people ,the gravity of earth)
- Noun1 of noun 2 ( people of courage, the father of son , a door of colour)
- Noun1 with noun 2 ( a house with roof , a man with helmet , a door with lock , a lady with lamp)
The use of genitive (apostrophe)
- The ‘have’ relation :- The earth’s gravity ; the sun’s light
- The subject verb relation :- The train’s departure.
- The verb object relation:- A city’s destruction
- The subject complement relation :-The country’s beauty
(Inclusive & exclusive We)
- Let’s go back to bar now, shall we? (Inclusive we)
- We’ve enjoyed meeting you. ( exclusive we)
110 restrictive and non restrictive meaning
Non restrictive restrictive ( narrow down the meaning)
- The children the children who live next door
- A king a king of Denmark
Present tense : –
Present state ,Present event ,Present habit , Temporary present, Temporary habit
1.Will/ shall (neutral)
- The letter will arrive tomorrow
- I’ll see you again.
2. Be going to (arising from present time)
- Prices are going to rise.
- It’s going to rain.
3. Progressive aspect ( plan or arrangement)
- We are inviting several people to a party.
- What are you doing to lunch?
4. Simple present tense (fact)
- The match starts at 2:00 p.m.
- Tomorrow is Monday.
5.Will/shall +progressive aspect (temporary)
- We will be taking part in conference on Jan 21.
- Activities (walk, read , work ,drink)
- Processes (change, grow, improve)
- Verbs denoting momentary events ( knock , jump , nod , kick)
Adverb – i left it there.
Prepositional phrase :- I left it two miles away.
Noun phrase +away :- I left it two miles away.
Adverbial clause :- I left it where i found it.
Manner , means & measurement
- I wrote it hurriedly. (Manner)
- I wrote it by hand. (Means)
- I wrote it with a red ball point pen
Role ,standard & point of view
- Ram is clever.
- Ram is clever at swimming ( role)
- Ram is a good swimmer for a youngster. (Standard)
- He is good swimmer in a technical sense. ( point of view)
Open and hypothetical condition
- I’ll lend Ram the money because he needs it.
- I’ll lend Ram the money if he needs it. ( open condition)
- I would lend Ram the money if he needed it. ( hypothetical condition)
Emotive emphasis in speech
1.Interjection (oh, ah,aha,yipee ,ouch,ow, ooh, ugh)
- Oh , what a beautiful present.
- Wow, what a fantastic goal.
- This house is far, far too expensive.
- I think that the lectures are very very boring.
Stress on the operator
- That will be nice
- What are you doing ?
301 Intensifying adverbs
- Well, that’s very nice indeed.
- We are utterly powerless.
304 Exclamatory and rhetorical questions
- Hasn’t she grown.( she’s grown very very much)
- Am i hungry (I’m very hungry)
Agreement and disagreement
A : his speech was so boring.
B: Yes ( definitely , exactly , absolutely)
A: His speech was not boring.
B : ( definitely not / i agree/ it certainly not )
A: English is difficultly language to learn.
B : true, but grammar is quite easy.
B : yes , but it’s not so difficult as Russian.
3.Partial or qualified agreement
I realize that every form of taxation has its critics but surely this is the most unfair and unpopular tax that was ever invented.
4. Strengthened agreement
A: the government will have to take steps to limit the no of cars on the road.
B: yes , in fact i believe public opinion is now in favour of banning cars in the central areas of major cities.
274 Fact , hypothesis
- I’m glad that the minister has agreed ( fact)
- I wish that the minister had agreed. ( hypothesis)
- Did you know that the minister had agreed?
- it’s best if Sarah is patient.
- I want all of us to agree.
- I hope to see you soon.
- I hope that he will arrive on time.
- I am hoping that they get that letter tomorrow.
- I love your dress.
- I like the new boss.
- I don’t like the way she dresses .
- I don’t think that you should have told the children.
4. Disappointment or Regret
- I’m very sorry to hear that you have to leave.
- I am disappointed that the match has been cancelled.
- it’s surprising that so many people come to these meetings.
5. Concern , worry
- I am worried that our money will be unused unnecessarily.
- I am concerned ( worried ) about what will happen to the union
- How strange ! That you both went to the Same school.
Volition (4 types)
1.Willingness ( will / shall )
- Will you lend me those scissors.
- The porter will help if you ask him.
- I want to read this newspaper report.
- Do u want me to sign this letter.
- That remark was intended to hurt her
- Are u going to catch the train.
- He insists on doing everything himself