Ai || Terminal solution || 2019

5th Semester


What is agile company?

  • An agile company is accompany that has the quick ability to adapt to the changes.

Define strategic information system.

  • It is the system that support operations or management processes that provides a firm with strategic products, services, and capabilities for competitive advantage.

Define strategy.

  • Strategy is the determination of the basic long-tern purpose and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources necessary for carrying out the goals.

What is business intelligence?

  • It comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis of business information.

What are content dimension of good information quality?

  • The content dimension of good information quality are:
  1. Flexible.
  2. Support decision-making

What do you understand by strategic advantage?
Strategic advantage refers to the process of developing strategies with the use of IT that helps an organization to gain a competitive advantage, that helps in the process of operations.
Define virtual company.
A virtual company is an organization that uses information technology to link people, organizations, assets, ideas, etc.
What is executive information system?
It is the system that provides critical information from MIS, DSS, and other sources tailored to the information needs of executives.


What do you mean by Omniscience?
The state of knowing everything that predict the output. For example tic tac toe.
What are the prerequisites for pass total Turning test?
Natural language processing Knowledge representation Automated reasoning Machine learning
Define intelligent agent with example?
An intelligent agent perceive its environment via sensors and acts upon that environment with its effectors (actuators). Ex alexasiri and autonomous vehicle
What do you mean by utility-based agent?
A utility-based agent is an agent that acts based not only on what the goal is, but the best way to reach that goal. In short, it is the usefulness or utility of the agent that makes itself distinct from its counterparts.
What do you mean by ridge in hill climbing?
Hill climbing algorithm is a local search algorithm which continuously moves in the direction of increasing elevation/value to find the peak of the mountain or best solution to the problem. It terminates when it reaches a peak value where no neighbor has a higher value.
 Define CNF with suitable example?
Conjunctive normal form (CNF) is an approach to Boolean logic that expresses formulas as conjunctions of clauses with an AND or OR. Each clause connected by a conjunction, or AND, must be either a literal or contain a disjunction, or OR operator. CNF is useful for automated theorem proving.
For example
The clauses may also be literals:
Why alpha beta pruning is used?
Alpha–beta pruning is a search algorithm that seeks to decrease the number of nodes that are evaluated by the minimax algorithm in its search tree. It is an adversarial search algorithm used commonly for machine playing of two-player games (Tic-tac-toe, Chess, Go, etc.).
Define logical equivalence.
Logical equivalence is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences in propositional logic or Boolean algebra. The relation translates verbally into “if and only if” and is symbolized by a double-lined, double arrow pointing to the left and right.
Write time and space complexity of depth first and breadth first search.
Depth First Search has a time complexity of O(b^m), where b is the maximum branching factor of the search tree and m is the maximum depth of the state space. Terrible if m is much larger than d, but if search tree is “bushy”, may be much faster than Breadth First Search.

ST Xavier’s College

What is cognitive science?
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It is the study of thought, learning, and mental organization, which draws on aspects of psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer modelling. Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information. 
 How does rule based agent work?
A rule based agent is an intelligent agent (IA) that refers to an autonomous entity which acts, directing its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is an agent), upon an environment using observation through sensors and consequent actuators (i.e. it is intelligent. Rule based agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. A reflex machine, such as a thermostat, is considered an example of a rule base agent.
What is tautology?
In logic, a tautology is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation. An example is “x=y or x≠y”. A less abstract example is “The ball is all green, or the ball is not all green”. This is true regardless of the color of the ball.
 Define omniscience.
Omniscience is the capacity to know everything. Omniscience is the capacity to have unlimited knowledge about all things. Example of omniscience is god who is known to know everything.
What is CNF form?
Conjunctive normal form (CNF) is an approach to Boolean logic that expresses formulas as conjunctions of clauses with an AND or OR. Each clause connected by a conjunction, or AND, must be either a literal or contain a disjunction, or OR operator. CNF is useful for automated theorem proving.
How do you define fuzzy logic?
Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on “degrees of truth” rather than the usual “true or false” (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.It is employed to handle the concept of partial truth, where the truth value may range between completely true and completely false. 
 Define sequential environment.
Sequential environment is a situation in which an agent is present where an agent requires memory of past actions to determine the next best actions. However, in an episodic environment, there is a series of one-shot actions, and only the current percept is required for the action.
 What is rational agent?
A rational agent could be anything which makes decisions, as a person, firm, machine, or software. It carries out an action with the best outcome after considering past and current percepts(agent’s perceptual inputs at a given instance).
 What are different types of intelligent agent?
Agents can be grouped into four classes based on their degree of perceived intelligence and capability :

  • Simple Reflex Agents
  • Model-Based Reflex Agents
  • Goal-Based Agents
  • Utility-Based Agents
  • Learning Agent

 Define semantic network.
A semantic network is used when one has knowledge that is best understood as a set of concepts that are related to one another. Most semantic networks are cognitively based. They also consist of arcs and nodes which can be organized into a taxonomic hierarchy.


What does cognitive approach resemble in AI?
Cognitivemodeling is an area of computer science that deals with simulating human problem-solving and mental processing in a computerized model. Such a model can be used to simulate or predict human behavior or performance on tasks similar to the ones modeled and improve human-computer interaction.
What is rational agent?
In machine learning and artificial intelligence research, the “rational agent” is a concept that guides the use of game theory and decision theory in applying artificial intelligence to various real-world scenarios. 
What is the relation between agent and environment?
An agentis anything that can perceive its environment through sensors and acts upon that environment through effectors. 
Differentiate between artificial intelligence and omniscience.

Artificial Intelligence Omniscience
Traditionally used by electronic devices to create an intelligent agent that can perceive and respond to data The capacity to have unlimited knowledge about all things.
Example: Computer playing chess with artificial intelligence Example: God who is known to everything

What is the problem of hill climbing search?

  • Local Maxima
  • Plateau
  • Ridges

What is the use of sensor?

  • A sensoris a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

What do you mean by dynamic environment?

  • If the environmentcan change itself while an agent is deliberating then such environment is called a dynamic environment 

Define search in AI

  • Searching techniques are strategies that look for solutions to a problem in a search The solutions or ‘goal states’ could sometimes be an object, a goal, a sub-goal or a path to the searched item.

Define uninformed search and informed search

  • Uninformed search: An uninformed search is a searching technique that has no additional information about the distance from the current state to the goal. 
  • Informed Search:Another technique that has additional information about the estimate distance from the current state to the goal.

Define heuristic search
Heuristic search refers to a search strategy that attempts to optimize a problem by iteratively improving the solution based on a given heuristic function or a cost measure.