Nonverbal communication between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless clues.It includes the use of visual cues such as body,language (kinesis), distance (proxemic) and physical environments/appearance, of voice (paralanguage) and of touch (haptics). It can also include chronemics (the use of time) and oculesics (eye contact and the actions of looking while talking and listening, frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate).
Nonverbal communication strengthens a first impression in common situations like attracting a partner or in a business interview: impressions are on average formed within the first four seconds of contact. First encounters or interactions with another person strongly affect a person’s perception. When the other person or group is absorbing the message, they are focused on the entire environment around them, meaning the other person uses all five senses in the interaction: 83% sight, 11% hearing, 3% smell, 2% touch and 1% taste.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
- TIME LANGUAGE
- PHYSICAL CONTEXT
1.KINESICS: Kinesics is the study of body physical movements. It is the way our body communicates without words and it’s occupying a major aspect of non verbal communication process. When we communicate our thought process and attitude is transmitted in the form of body movements by which our inner state of mind is reflected in our movements. Thus you can realize these expressions by face and eyes, gestures, posture and physical appearance.
- Facial expression is the first way to communicate particularly eyes and eye movement. We can express happiness, surprise, fear, anger and sadness everything through our eyes.Face shows feelings, attitudes and emotions. The degree of facial expressions are determined by cultures. People from United States show emotions more than their Asian counterparts. Facial expressions are shown to be similar all over the world, but people from different cultures do not show it in public. The meanings of these are commonly acknowledged everywhere. Too much expression is taken to be shallow in some places whereas in some it is taken as being weak.
- The gesture is our body parts especially arms, legs, hands and head convey meaning. All these movements are made rationally along with our speaking and not made with any intention.A gesture is a characteristic of nonverbal communication in which visible body actions communicate particular message. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body.Gestures may be made with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head, face and eyes, such as winking, nodding, or rolling one’s eyes. Although the study of gesture is still in its infancy, some broad categories of gestures have been identified by researchers. The most familiar are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures. These are conventional, culture-specific gestures that can be used as replacement for words, such as the hand wave used in western cultures for “hello” and “goodbye.” A single emblematic gesture can have a very different significance in different cultural contexts, ranging from complimentary to highly offensive
- Body shape or posture is related to our biological factor and it is natural but poster is how we stretch our body in different styles. Body shapes are classified in to three they are ectomorph which is thin, youthful, and tall then the mesomorph is muscular fit body and finally endomorph which is fat, round, and soft.There are many different types of body positioning to portray certain postures, including slouching, towering, legs spread, jaw thrust, shoulders forward, and arm crossing. The posture or bodily stance exhibited by individuals communicates a variety of messages whether good or bad.Posture and how you carry your self tells a lot about you. How you walk, sit, stand or hold your head not only indicates your current mood, but also your personality in general.For example, if you cross your arms while standing, you indicate that you may be closed off and defensive. Meanwhile, walking with your head down and avoiding eye contact with others may indicate shyness.
- Appearance includes clothes, hair style, jewelry, cosmetics and such styles which we include in our daily life by which we communicate how we want to project our self.
2)PROXEMICS: It involves how we arrange personal space and what we arrange in it. They create meaning in your mind and others mind as well. They are also called personal space language which involves how we are maintaining relationship with a person with intimate space, personal space, social space and finally public space. All this things are typical example of our relationship space with our father, friend, boss and a stranger.
3) TIME LANGUAGE: Time language is all about the meaning we convey through time. In western countries time equates money because their business culture is like that. The same thing apply may differ for other cultures. Therefore time language is associated with culture as well.
4)PARALANGUAGE: It involves how we say something in different pitch, tone and voice modulation such as slow or fast. Based on voice language we infer people background and personality.
5)PHYSICAL CONTEXT: It refers to our surroundings, colour, layout and design of our physical environment. For example colour of the building and room, design of table and chairs etc. All these things communicate a lot to our feelings and emotions.
To conclude Non verbal communication is an art as well a skill. We communicate through letters, reports, mails but they are all one way communication but daily we communicate with people which is a two way process.
This interpersonal communication requires a lot of care in non verbal cues through which we can improve our relationship better and increase a chance of good business dealings which again is an essential ingredient in face to face communication.