a) Features of informal English
- Silent pauses (dash -)
- Voice filled pauses (e.g. –erm)
- Use of repetition (unplanned repeat, e.g. I – I – I get)
- False starts marker (e.g. I mean, you know, etc.)
- discourse markers and fillers (e.g. well, you see, etc.)
- short forms and contractions (e.g. don’t, we’ll, gonna)
With tag questions the speaker asserts something and then invites the listener’s response
- You are staying here , are you?
- Ram is a doctor , isn’t he ?
Tone is the type of pitch change which takes place on the nucleus. There are three basic types of tone in English, each of which tends to express a number of related meanings:
- falling tone: certainty, completeness, independence (esp. straightforward statements, wh-questions)
- rising tone: uncertainty, incompleteness, dependence (esp. yes-no questions, subsidiary information)
- fall-rise: combines the meaning of ‘certainty, assertion’ with that of ‘incompleteness, dependence’ (esp. reservation, implied contrast, etc.).
e) Unit nouns
Unit nouns subdivide non-count nouns into separate pieces. e.g. a piece of paper
f)A rhetorical question
A rhetorical question is more like a forceful statement and can have a positive or negative form. There are also rhetorical wh-questions.
E.g. I was suffering from depression then. (rhetorical negative)
Answer:- WASN’T I suffering from a depression then ?
g) Post-modifiers & Pre-modifiers
Modifiers after the noun head are called post-modifiers. There are several types of post-modifiers: relative clauses prepositional phrases non-finite clauses equivalent to relative clauses appositive clauses clauses of time, place, manner and reason adverbs adjectives.
Modifiers after a determiner but before the noun head are called pre-modifiers. There are several types of pre-modifiers: adjectives adjective phrases –ing participles –ed participles nouns. In addition two or more modifiers can modify the same noun.
h)subordinating conjunction Coordinating conjunctions
A subordinating conjunction is a word which joins together a dependent clause and an independent clause.
e.g.When the doorbell rang, my dog Skeeter barked loudly.
Coordinating conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main clauses, words, or other parts of speech which are of the same syntactic importance.
e.g.You can eat your cake with a spoon or fork.
Vocatives such as Alice, Mr Pym, Dr Hyde are often used to get someone’s attention. They can range from formal (Sir, My Lord, Your Excellency) to informal (daddy, my dear). Some occupational vocatives (waiter, driver) may sound impolite. A good alternative in such cases is the expression Excuse me!
J)It reports the same idea for conformation or when not heard.
A:- I Went to go home.
B:-Excuse me;where did you go?
a.Mr. Koirala who is very popular is a essayist.
c.For whom did you work?
d. We looked at eachother for confirming similarities.
For 7,8 & 9
For 6 & 7Grammar
English year 2015