Software Engineering || 1 marks

6th semester

2019 Year

ii
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iii. what is architectural design ?
Architectural design is a process for identifying the sub-systems making up a system and the framework for sub-system control and communication. The output of this design process is a description of the software architecture. Architectural design is an early stage of the system design process.
iv.Define stress testing
Stress Testing is a software testing technique that determines the robustness of software by testing beyond the limits of normal operation. Stress testing is particularly important for critical software but is used for all types of software. Stress testing emphasizes on robustness, availability and error handling under a heavy load rather than on what is correct behavior under normal situations.






v .What are the advantages of test driven development?

  • You only write code that’s needed
  • More modular design
  • Easier to maintain
  • Easier to refactor
  • High test coverage
  • Less debugging

vi.  List any four characteristics of good software.

  • Efficiency
  • Correctness
  • Functionality
  • Dependability
  • Security
  • Modularity
  • Maintainability
  • Flexibility
  • Scalability

vii. What is System Engineering?
Systems Engineering is a transdisciplinary and integrative approach to enable the successful realization, use, and retirement of engineered systems, using systems principles and concepts, and scientific, technological, and management methods.
viii.What is the importance of verification and validation?
Verification activities confirm that the product is built to the stated (documented) specifications and validation confirms that the product actually meets the customer’s needs. To put it simply, verification ensures the product is built right and validation ensures the right product is built.
ix.Write any two requirement discovery techniques in requirement engineering process
 
x.Define repository model.
A repository model is a system that will allow interfacing sub-systems to share the same data. Sub-system must exchange data so that they can work together effectively.






 
 

2019 Makeup year

i.What do you mean by socio technical system?
Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society’s complex infrastructures and human behaviour.
ii.  What is pair programming?
Pair programming is an important technique for developing higher quality code, faster while also reducing risk and spreading knowledge in an organization. With pair programming, two software developers work on one computer, collaborating on the same design, algorithm, code, or test.
iii.List different types of software maintenance 

  • Corrective Software Maintenance.
  • Adaptive Software Maintenance.
  • Perfective Software Maintenance.
  • Preventive Software Maintenance.





iv. What is regression testing?
IT  is defined as a type of software testing to confirm that a recent program or code change has not adversely affected existing features.
v. List some essential attributes of good software.

  • Reliability.
  • Scalability.
  • Portability.
  • Reusability.
  • Useability.

vi. Differentiate between verification and validation
Verification And Validation Testing Difference
vii.Define interaction model .
An interaction model is a design model that binds an application together in a way that supports the conceptual models of its target users. It is the glue that holds an application together.
viii.What is the importance of formal specification?
The development of a formal specification provides insights and understanding of the software requirements and the software design.






ix.List the principle factors that affect cost of system engineering.

  • The quality of the software to be re-engineered.
  • The tool support availability for engineering.
  • The extent of the data conversion which is required.
  • The availability of expert staff for Re-engineering

x. What do you mean by version management?
Version Management also called Version Control or Revision Control, is a means to effectively track and control changes to a collection of related entities. The term “Versioning” is also sometimes used but the difference is that “Versioning” typically refers to when someone manually applies a version number or label to something for easier communication or simplification such as “draft”, “beta”, or “1.0”.

year 2018

i. Differentiate between generic and custom product.
Solved: Chapter 1 Problem 2E Solution | Software Engineering 9th Edition | Chegg.com
ii. What do you mean by emergent property of system?
Emergent properties are properties of the system as a whole rather than properties that can be derived from the properties of components of a system. Emergent properties are a consequence of the relationships between system components.
iii. Define risk triangle.
Project Management Triangle
v.What is the disadvantage of open source development?

  • Vulnerable to malicious users.
  • Might not be as user-friendly as commercial versions.
  • Don’t come with extensive support.





vi. List different reliability perspectives in socio-technical system.
viii. What is ethnography?

Ethnography is a qualitative research method used to study people and cultures. … Ethnography can provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice.
ix. . Differentiate between alpha testing and beta testing.
What is alpha and beta testing in regards to software engineering? - Quora
x.Why inspection is better than testing?

Inspections are better for finding errors in design, requirements documents, source code etc. Testing is the only way of finding operational defects, and to make sure that non-functional requirements are working as they are supposed to. Tests can not find errors in requirements documents or in the source code.

2017 year

i. Define software.
Software is considered to be collection of executable programming code, associated libraries and documentations. Software, when made for a specific requirement is called software product. Engineering on the other hand, is all about developing products, using well-defined, scientific principles and methods.

ii. . What is software prototype?
The Software Prototyping refers to building software application prototypes which displays the functionality of the product under development, but may not actually hold the exact logic of the original software.







iii.What is the importance of transition phase of RUP?
The main goal of RUP is to create high quality software with a predictable budget and time frame. Each of the life cycle phases can be repeated, if needed, until the main objectives are meet.
iv What is ethnography?

Ethnography is a qualitative research method used to study people and cultures. … Ethnography can provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice.
v.Define design pattern.
A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. A design pattern isn’t a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations.
vi.Define repository model. 
A repository model is a system that will allow interfacing sub-systems to share the same data. Sub-system must exchange data so that they can work together effectively. Each sub-system maintains its own database. Data is interchanged with other sub-systems by passing messages to them.
vii. Why is version management done?
Version control helps teams solve these kinds of problems, tracking every individual change by each contributor and helping prevent concurrent work from conflicting. Changes made in one part of the software can be incompatible with those made by another developer working at the same time.
viii.write the benefits of involving end-users in release testing.
  • they can easily identify the modifications needed.
  • Helps in getting the views of the users and the modifications needed from the users’ perspective.

ix.Differentiate between structural model and dynamic model.
Static model is more structural than behavioral while dynamic model is a representation of the behavior of the static components of the system. Static modelling includes class diagram and object diagrams and help in depicting static constituents of the system. Dynamic modelling on the other hand consists of sequence of operations, state changes, activities, interactions and memory.






x.Define socio-technical system.
A socio-technical system (STS) is one that considers requirements spanning hardware, software, personal, and community aspects. … A community works through people using technology, as people work through software using hardware. Consequently, social requirements are now an important part of computing design.

2016 year

i.List different types of software maintenance 

  • Corrective Software Maintenance.
  • Adaptive Software Maintenance.
  • Perfective Software Maintenance.
  • Preventive Software Maintenance.

 ii. What is software prototyping?
Software prototyping refers to the process of visualising a software product before it has been created. Creating software from scratch requires a great investment in the form of time, money, and effort. That is why most clients prefer to have a visual prototype developed before work is put into the development of the actual product. The prototype acts as a ‘model’ closely replicating the appearance, and sometimes the functionality, of the product that the client has in mind.
iii.What are the organizational factors that may affect the design, requirements and operation of sociotechnical system? 




iv.What is software engineering? 
Software engineering is defined as a process of analyzing user requirements and then designing, building, and testing software application which will satisfy those requirements.
v.What is evolutionary process model?
Evolutionary model is a combination of Iterative and Incremental model of software development life cycle. Delivering your system in a big bang release, delivering it in incremental process over time is the action done in this model. Some initial requirements and architecture envisioning need to be done.
vi.What is requirement engineering?
Requirement Engineering is the process of defining, documenting and maintaining the requirements. It is a process of gathering and defining service provided by the system.
vii. Define software evolution.
Software evolution is the term used to define the process that starts by the development of the software and by any step that incrementally updates the software.
viii.List two reliability metrics. 

  • Mean Time to Failure (MTTF)
  • Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)
  • Mean Time Between Failure (MTBR)
  • Rate of occurrence of failure (ROCOF)

ix.Differentiate between safety and security. 
Medical software development – where safety meets security
 
x. What is black box testing?
Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which the functionalities of software applications are tested without having knowledge of internal code structure, implementation details and internal paths. Black Box Testing mainly focuses on input and output of software applications and it is entirely based on software requirements and specifications. It is also known as Behavioral




 

2015 Year

i.What is software engineering? 
Software engineering is defined as a process of analyzing user requirements and then designing, building, and testing software application which will satisfy those requirements.
 ii.Differentiate between module and system.
iii.What do you mean by system modeling?
System modeling is the process of developing abstract models of a system, with each model presenting a different view or perspective of that system. It is about representing a system using some kind of graphical notation, which is now almost always based on notations in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Models help the analyst to understand the functionality of the system; they are used to communicate with customers.
iv.Define exploratory development.
Exploratory program development style refers to an informal development style in which the programmer uses his own intuition to develop a program rather than making use of the systematic body of knowledge which is categorized under software engineering discipline.
v.What is modular decomposition?
the modular decomposition is a decomposition of a graph into subsets of vertices called modules. A module is a generalization of a connected component of a graph. Unlike connected components, however, one module can be a proper subset of another. Modules therefore lead to a recursive (hierarchical) decomposition of the graph, instead of just a partition.




vi.What is quality planning?
The role of quality planning is to design a process that will be able to meet established goals under operating conditions. Quality planning is a methodology which can be used when a situation exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: A service has never existed before.
vii.Why call return model is not applicable for real time system?
viii.List the activities of software measurement process.

  • Plan Measurement
  • Perform Measurement
  • Evaluate Measurement
  • Establish and Sustain Commitment

ix.. What is ethnography?
Ethnography is a qualitative research method where researchers observe and/or interact with a study’s
participants in their reallife environment.
x.Explain pricing to win technique for software cost estimation.
The project costs whatever the customer has to spend on it.
Advantages:
   You get the contract.
Disadvantages:
   The probability that the customer gets the system he or she wants is small. Costs do not accurately reflect the work required






2014 Year

i. Define system engineering.
Systems Engineering is a transdisciplinary and integrative approach to enable the successful realization, use, and retirement of engineered systems, using systems principles and concepts, and scientific, technological, and management methods.
ii. What is ethnography?
Ethnography is a qualitative research method where researchers observe and/or interact with a study’s
participants in their reallife environment.
iii.Define modular decomposition.
Modular decomposition is a decomposition of a graph into subsets of vertices called modules. A module is a generalization of a connected component of a graph. Unlike connected components, however, one module can be a proper subset of another. Modules therefore lead to a recursive (hierarchical) decomposition of the graph, instead of just a partition.



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iv. Why functional and non-functional requirements must be considered together while preparing software specification?
While functional requirements define what the system does or must not do, non-functional requirements specify how the system should do it. Non-functional requirements do not affect the basic functionality of the system (hence the name, non-functional requirements).
 V. What is prototype?
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process.It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming.
vi. What is extreme programming?
Extreme Programming (XP) is an agile software development framework that aims to produce higher quality software, and higher quality of life for the development team. XP is the most specific of the agile frameworks regarding appropriate engineering practices for software development.
 vii. What is system procurement?
System procurement is the process of acquiring a system (or systems) to meet some identified organizational need. Before procurement, decisions are made on: scope of the system, system budgets and timescales, high-level system requirements.
viii. Why is it necessary to verify software requirements?
To check issues related to requirements, we perform requirements validation. We usually use requirements validation to check error at the initial phase of development as the error may increase excessive rework when detected later in the
ix. Is it necessary to test the integration of modules if each of the modules are functioning properly.

to check the correctness of communication among all the modules. Once all the components or modules are working independently, then we need to check the data flow between the dependent modules is known as integration testing.
x.Define enduring requirements with example.
These are relatively stable requirements that derive from the core activity of the organisation and which relate directly to the domain of the system. For example, in a hospital there will always be requirements concerned with patients, doctors, nurses, treatments, etc.



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2013 Year

I Differentiate between software engineering and system engineering.
Software Engineering deals with designing and developing software of the highest quality, while Systems Engineering is the sub discipline of engineering, which deals with the overall management of engineering projects during their life cycle
II. Define white box testing.

White Box Testing is software testing technique in which internal structure, design and coding of software are tested to verify flow of input-output and to improve design, usability and security
iii. Define repository model.

A repository model is a system that will allow interfacing sub-systems to share the same data. Sub-system must exchange data so that they can work together effectively. .Each sub-system maintains its own database. Data is interchanged with other sub-systems by passing messages to them.
v. Define incremental development.
Incremental development is a development approach that slices the product into fully working slices that are called increments. Iterative development is when teams gradually build up the features and functions but don’t wait until each of these is complete before releasing.
VI. How software quality is managed? 
  • encouraging documentation process standards, such as the creation of well-defined engineering documents using standard templates.
  • mentoring how to conduct standard processes, such as quality reviews.
  • performing in-process test data recording procedures.

VII. Is there any relation between quality and productivity?

There is a positive correlation between the two in any business environment. Better quality sets the product apart and increases sales. It also results in lesser defects, increases production efficiency, reduces replacement/repair costs and increases overall customer satisfaction.
VIII Define modular decomposition.
the modular decomposition is a decomposition of a graph into subsets of vertices called modules. A module is a generalization of a connected component of a graph. Unlike connected components, however, one module can be a proper subset of another. Modules therefore lead to a recursive (hierarchical) decomposition of the graph, instead of just a partition.


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IX. How market environment affects software cost?
The marketing environment includes all those factors or forces that influence a company’s performance in its chosen target market. Marketing environment factors affects the business by the way of input (Sales & Profit) and the business also affect the environment by output (Products & Services).
x What is business risk?
Business risk is the risk that a business’ future operating profits may drop due to adverse changes in operations. Business risk arises from fluctuations in the business’ revenue and is magnified by the business’ operating leverage.

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