1.Define the routing.
- Routing is the process of moving packets across a network from one host to a another. It is usually performed by dedicated devices called routers.
2.different between client server and peer to peer
There is a specific server and specific clients connected to the server.
|peer to peer
Clients and server are not distinguished; each node act as client and server.
|Service||The client request for service and server respond with the service.||Each node can request for services and can also provide the services.|
|Focus||Sharing the information.||Connectivity.|
|Data||The data is stored in a centralized server.||Each peer has its own data.|
3.Write down the disadvantage of static routing.
- Suitable for simple topologies or for special purposes such as a default static route.
- If a link fails, a static route cannot reroute traffic. Therefore, manual intervention is required to re-route traffic.
- Configuration complexity increases dramatically as the network grows. Managing the static configurations in large networks can become time consuming.
4. What is the multi homing?
- Multihoming is the practice of connecting a host or a computer network to more than one network. This can be done in order to increase reliability or performance.
- What is function of data link layer?
- The data link layeris the second layer in the OSI Model. The three main functions of the data link layer are to deal with transmission errors, regulate the flow of data, and provide a well-defined interface to the network
5.Define basic features of STCP protocol?
- SCTP has mixed features of TCP and UDP.
- SCTP maintains the message boundaries and detects the lost data, duplicate data as well as out-of-order data.
- SCTP provides the Congestion control as well as Flow control.
- SCTP is especially designed for internet applications.
6.Different between DCCP and UDP.
|Segment retransmission and flow control through windowing||No windowing or retransmission|
|Segment sequencing||No sequencing|
|Acknowledge sequencing||No acknowledgment|
8. What is the congestion brief?
- Congestion in data networking and queuing theory is the reduced quality of service that occurs when a network node or link is carrying more data than it can handle. Typical effects include queuing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A consequence of congestion is that an incremental increase in offered load leads either only to a small increase or even a decrease in network throughput.
1.The functions of network layer are as follows:
i> Network layer determines which route is suitable from source to destination.
Ii> Network layer defines the logical address or IP address.
2.The issues of ipv4 are:
The main reason was the address depletion. Others reasons are related to slowness of process due to some unnecessary processing, the need for new options, support for multimedia, absence of support of quality of service(QOS), problems of safety communication and the desperate need for security.
3. Routing is the process of moving packets across a network from one host to another. It is usually performed by dedicated devices called routers.
4. Multicast is communication between a single sender and multiple receivers on a network. … Together with anycast and unicast, multicast is one of the packet types in the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).
5. Difference Between Differentiate Service and Integrated Service?
Ans: Differentiated Services is a model for providing QoS (Quality of Service) in the internet. This improves the best effort services provided by internet differentiating the traffic. Integrated Services is an architecture or model for providing QoS in networks.
6. define playback buffer.
Ans: The reserve area of memory before loading an audio and video is known as playback Buffer.Or, a playback buffer is a preloading data into a reserved area of memory.
|Client Server||Peer to peer|
|There is a specific server and specific clients connected to the server.||Clients and server are not distinguished; each node act as client and server.|
|The data is stored in a centralized server.||Each peer has its own data.|
|The client request for service and server respond with the service.||Each node can request for services and can also provide the services.|
9.Ans: Multi homing is the practice of connecting a host or a computer network to more than one network. This can be done in order to increase reliability or performance.
10.A super network, or super-net, is an Internet Protocol (IP) network that is formed, for routing purposes, from the combination of two or more networks (or subnets) into a larger network. … The process of forming a super-net is called supernetting, prefix aggregation, route aggregation, or route summarization.
2)what is delay and jitter?
Delay: Is the amount of time data(signal) takes to reach the destination.
Jitter: Is the variation of delay time.
This happens when a system is not in deterministic state
3)how peer discovery works in Gnutella?
discovery of resources in the Gnutella P2P network works in much the same way as sending ping/pong message in the network;the initial query is generated by a peer and sent to neighbor peers directly connected to it,these neighbor peers evaluate and then forward the query to other neighbor peers.
4) what is the basic feature of STCP protocol?
. Logical Addressing.
.Error Control and Flow Control
7) what is the fundamental difference between link state routing protocols and distance vector routing?
.Bellman-Ford algorithm is used for performing distance vector routing whereas Dijsktra is used for performing the link state routing
.Distance vector routing calculates the best route based on the distance (fewest number of hops). As against, Link state routing calculates best route on the basis of least cost
.The utilization of CPU and memory in distance vector routing is lower than the link state routing
.Link state routing updates only the link state while Distance vector routing updates full routing table
9)what is group shared tree multicasting?
in group shared tree each router needs to have one shortest path tree for each router.
if a touter receives a multicast packet it encapsulates the packet in a unicast packet and sends it to the core router.
Protocol Layer ICMP
Application RTSP Transport
2. Ans: Given, subnets are: 126.96.36.199/26 188.8.131.52/26 199.1.1128/26 184.108.40.206/26
Taking Common parts, 11000111.00000001.00000001.00000000
Performing AND operation with any one subnet, 11111111.1111111.11111111.00000000 11000111.00000001.00000001.00000000
Converting the result in decimal form, we get 220.127.116.11
Finally, the aggregated network is 18.104.22.168/24.
3. Ans: The types of RTCP messages are: Sender report Receiver report Source Description Message Bye message Application Specific message
4. Ans: The problems with integrated services are: a. Each router requires to keep the information of each flow. b. Few services like guaranteed and control load service only
5.Ans: Using Abbreviation rule,
a. Discard the leading zeroes.
b. Omit the consecutive blocks of zero and replace with :: only once.
6. Ans: The functions of IPQoS are: a. Classification b. Policing c. Shaping d. Admission Control e. Scheduling
7. Ans: Jitter is any deviation in, or displacement of, the signal pulses in a high-frequency digital signal. In other words, jitter in IP networks is the variation in the latency on a packet flow between two systems.
8. Ans: Multi streaming in SCTP refers to the capability of SCTP to transmit several independent streams of data in parallel.
9. Ans: DCCP UDP Connection oriented Connectionless Useful unreliable datagram useful for establishing low-latency and lost With congestion control tolerating connections between applications
10. Ans: The message type that ICMP does not report are: An ICMP error message A packet destined to an IP broadcast or IP multicast address A packet sent as link layer broadcast or multicast
- List the function of network layer.
Network layer determines which route is suitable from source to destination. Network layer defines the logical address or IP address.
2.List the issues of IPV4.
- Deficiency of address space – quantity various The devices connected to the Internet grows exponentially. The size of address space 2 32 is quickly exhausted.
- Weak expansibility of the protocol – the insufficient size of heading IPv4 doesn’t allow to place demanded quantity of additional parameters in it.
Routing refers to establishing the routes that data packets take on their way to a particular destination.
4. Define multicast.
multicast is group communication where data transmission is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously. Multicast can be one-to-many or many-to-many distribution.
- Differentiate between integrated and differentiated service.
|Integrated service||Differentiated service|
|It is a flow-based service||It is a class based service|
|It has service type limitation.||It doesn’t have service type limitation.|
|It has scalability issue||Itsolves the scalability issue by having per flow specification rule.|
6.Define playback buffer.
A playback buffer is preloading data into a reserved area of a memory.
- What is virtual circuit forwarding table?
A virtual circuit (VC) is a means of transporting data over a packet switched computer network in such a way that it appears as though there is a dedicated physical layer link between the source and destination end systems of this data.
- Differentiate between client server and peer to peer architecture.
The main difference between the Client-Server andPeer-to-Peer network model is that in Client-Servermodel, the data management is centralised whereas, in Peer-to-Peer each user has its own data and applications.
- What is multihoming?
Multihoming is the practice of connecting a host or a computer network to more than one network. This can be done in order to increase reliability or performance.
- What is IP aggregation?
A supernetwork, or supernet, is an Internet Protocol (IP) network that is formed, for routing purposes, from the combination of two or more networks (or subnets) into a larger network.